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National Wildlife Week 2023 - Quiz Series - Wildlife Conservation In India

Wildlife Conservation in India

Welcome to a quiz dedicated to India's commendable endeavors in preserving its rich wildlife heritage. From the proactive steps taken to safeguard the majestic Royal Bengal tiger in Sundarbans to the conservation efforts for the Great Indian bustard in the Thar Desert, India's journey in wildlife conservation is as diverse as its flora and fauna.

Total Questions: 40 multiple choice questions (MCQ) that will guide you through the intricacies and milestones of India's conservation initiatives, highlighting both the challenges faced and the victories celebrated.

Time Allotted: 15 minutes. Dive deep into India's conservation tapestry, but be mindful of the time!

Before embarking on this enlightening journey, we request you to share the following details on the next page:

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After completing the quiz series, all participants will be granted access to a comprehensive review of the questions, paired with their correct answers. Moreover, for those who excel in showcasing their knowledge, a certificate of excellence awaits. Engage in this quiz and enrich your understanding of India's pivotal role in global wildlife conservation!

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1. In which year was Project Elephant launched?

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2. The proposed mining project in Niyamgiri hills that faced opposition for threatening the habitat of the Dongria Kondh tribe and wildlife was located in which state?

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3. The 'Mawphlang Sacred Forest' is a well-known sacred grove located in which Indian state?

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4. In which Indian state do the sacred groves called "Orans" serve as traditional biodiversity conservation areas?

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5. The ‘Joint Forest Management’ concept introduced in the 1980s in India promotes the partnership of:

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6. Which type of forest under the Indian Forest Act grants the most rights to the local communities?

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7. Which of the following Acts was enacted to support the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources?

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8. Under whose leadership was the Project Tiger initiative launched in 1973 to protect the Bengal Tiger in its natural habitat?

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9. Which act was the first comprehensive legislation relating to the protection of wildlife in India?

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10. What is the primary objective of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, 1994?

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11. The first-ever wildlife sanctuary in India, established in 1936, later became which national park?

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12. Which Act in India deals specifically with the conservation of wetlands?

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13. In a Reserved Forest, which activity is prohibited without permission?

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14. Which Indian environmentalist and author wrote the book "The Vanishing: India’s Wildlife Crisis"?

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15. What was one of the main criticisms against the Gadgil Commission report?

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16. The Forest (Rights) Act of 2006 recognizes the rights of which community?

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17. The Wildlife Protection Act was amended in 2006 to include provisions for the constitution of which body for controlling wildlife crime?

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18. The 'Apatani' tribe, known for their sustainable agricultural practices and fish farming, hail from which part of India?

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19. Which organization, founded in 1969, has been a forerunner in the field of wildlife conservation in India and also played a key role in initiating "Project Tiger"?

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20. "This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India" is written by:

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21. Which of the following acts is considered the first comprehensive legislation regarding forest conservation in India?

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22. The Chipko Movement, a forest conservation movement, began in which Indian state?

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23. Who wrote the book "The Man-Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag"?

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24. The Indian Board for Wildlife was rechristened in 2003 as:

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25. Which Indian leader quoted, "The Earth, the air, the land, and the water are not an inheritance from our forefathers but on loan from our children."?

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26. The Bishnoi community of Rajasthan is known for its wildlife conservation ethics. What event in 1730 highlighted their dedication to tree conservation?

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27. Which tribe in Odisha has been traditionally protecting and conserving the olive ridley turtles during their nesting season?

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28. Which organization was established in 1969 to promote wildlife conservation efforts in India?

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29. Who is known for their efforts to conserve the Ganges river dolphin and established the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary in Bihar?

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30. In which year was the Indian Forest Act enacted?

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31. Which of the following animals is NOT listed in Schedule I of the WPA, providing it the highest degree of protection?

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32. The Sariska Reserve, initially a hunting reserve for the royal family, is located in which Indian state?

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33. Which organization, founded in 1883, is one of the largest non-governmental organizations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research, and is headquartered in Mumbai?

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34. In the late 1980s, which major project on the River Narmada faced opposition due to concerns over displacement of people and environmental impacts?

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35. What is the primary objective of the Indian Forest Act of 1927?

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36. Who was the first Indian to be awarded the World Wildlife Fund's Gold Medal for his/her contribution to the conservation of wildlife?

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37. The Silent Valley Movement aimed to protect the habitat from which threat?

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38. Which movement in the 1970s focused on the protection of trees by hugging them, thereby preventing their felling?

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39. In which year was the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve, which includes parts of Kerala, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site?

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40. The practice of leaving certain patches of forest undisturbed as a habitat for forest deities, commonly known as 'Sacred Groves', is widely prevalent in which region of India?

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Conservation in India: A Historical and Contemporary Perspective

India, a country with rich biodiversity, offers a unique blend of flora and fauna across its vast and varied topography. However, as with many nations, its wildlife and ecosystems have faced significant threats over the years. Recognizing these challenges, India has initiated various conservation measures, often driven by the vision of its political and social leaders. This article explores the evolution of conservation efforts in India, through a reflection on the key legislations, projects, and individuals that have shaped the country’s environmental trajectory.

Legislative Foundations

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972: One of the foremost steps taken by the Indian government was the enactment of the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) in 1972. It became India’s first comprehensive legislation related to wildlife protection. The act prohibits hunting and provides protection to listed species of flora and fauna, categorizing them based on the threat levels.

Indian Forest Act of 1927: The Indian Forest Act, promulgated in 1927, was the country’s pioneering legislation focused on forest conservation. It primarily concentrated on the regulation of movement and transit of forest produce, ensuring the sustainable use of forest resources.

Environmental Impact Assessment Act, 1994: Introduced in 1994, this act mandates the evaluation of potential environmental impacts of any proposed project, ensuring that developmental activities do not come at the cost of the environment.

Forest (Rights) Act, 2006: Recognizing the indigenous tribes and forest dwellers’ rights, this act emphasized the critical role local communities play in conservation. It provided a legal framework for these communities to claim their rights to forest land and resources.

Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017: Focusing on the conservation of wetlands, this act showcases India’s commitment to preserving its diverse aquatic ecosystems.

Key Conservation Projects

Project Elephant (1992): Launched in 1992, this project aims to conserve elephants, their habitats, and corridors. It also sought to address the human-elephant conflicts and promote welfare measures for these majestic creatures.

Project Tiger (1973): Initiated under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s leadership, Project Tiger aimed to provide a conducive environment for tigers in their natural habitat. This initiative marked India’s dedicated effort to protect its national animal.

Influential Personalities and Movements

Jim Corbett: Not only a famous hunter-turned-conservationist but also an author, Corbett penned “The Man-Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag,” shedding light on the human-wildlife dynamics.

Salim Ali: Awarded the WWF’s Gold Medal, Salim Ali made significant contributions to ornithology and wildlife conservation in India.

The Chipko Movement: A grassroots-level movement from Uttarakhand where local villagers, primarily women, hugged trees to prevent their felling. This movement showcased the intertwined relationship between community and conservation.

Silent Valley Movement: Aimed at protecting the Silent Valley in Kerala from a proposed hydroelectric project, this movement became a landmark in India’s environmental protests, highlighting the need to prioritize ecology over short-term developmental goals.

Bishnoi Community: This community, known for its deep-rooted environmental ethos, caught national attention during the Khejarli Massacre, where hundreds sacrificed their lives to protect trees from being cut down.

Gadgil Commission: Established to understand the ecology and environment of the Western Ghats, the report faced criticism for overlooking local population concerns, underscoring the complexities of conservation efforts in densely populated areas.

Literary Contributions to Conservation: Books like “The Vanishing: India’s Wildlife Crisis” by Prerna Singh Bindra and “This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India” by Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha have played pivotal roles in shedding light on India’s conservation challenges and history.

Conclusion

India’s journey in conservation is a testament to its commitment to preserving its natural heritage. Through robust legislations, dedicated projects, and the tireless efforts of individuals and communities, the country continues to navigate the intricate balance between development and conservation. The questions highlighted above provide a snapshot of this journey, emphasizing the multi-faceted nature of conservation efforts in India.