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National Wildlife Week 2023 - Quiz Series - Human Wildlife Conflict

Human-Wildlife Conflict: The Global Conundrum Quiz

Welcome to a quiz that ventures into the intricate dynamics between humans and wildlife, exploring conflicts, cohabitations, and conservation efforts.

Total Questions: 40 multiple choice questions (MCQ) that will navigate through the delicate balance of human-wildlife interactions across various landscapes.

Time Allotted: 15 minutes. Dive into the challenges and triumphs of coexistence, but be mindful of the ticking clock!

Before you initiate this enlightening journey, please provide the following details on the subsequent page:

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Upon completion of the quiz, participants will receive a comprehensive breakdown of the questions accompanied by the correct answers. Moreover, those showcasing exceptional insight will be awarded a certificate of recognition. Embark on this quest and immerse yourself in the fascinating world of human-wildlife interactions!

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1. Which animal is often in conflict with farmers in Spain and other parts of Europe due to its tendency to prey on livestock?

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2. Which type of land-use change has been a significant factor in escalating man-animal conflicts in Kerala?

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3. Community-based conservation efforts often rely on which principle to mitigate human-animal conflicts?

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4. Which of the following is NOT a primary reason for increasing man-animal conflicts in India?

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5. Which state in India reports the highest number of human-elephant conflict incidents annually?

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6. The fencing of which national border has led to problems for the migratory routes of elephants?

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7. Which big cat, found in the Sundarbans region of India, is notorious for occasionally preying on humans?

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8. Which bear species, native to India, can become aggressive and attack humans if surprised or if a mother perceives a threat to her cubs?

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9. Which animal, responsible for more human deaths in Africa than any other large animal, often conflicts with fishermen and boat operators?

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10. How can changing agricultural practices help reduce human-animal conflict?

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11. In the context of human-elephant conflict, what are 'kumki' elephants?

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12. Which of the following can be a long-term solution to reduce human-elephant conflicts?

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13. Which of the following is a major reason for the increasing human-elephant conflicts in India?

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14. Which animal in the Nilgiris is often involved in conflicts due to its habit of raiding apiaries (bee farms)?

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15. What role do local community education programs play in human-wildlife conflict management?

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16. Which initiative can help in the long-term mitigation of human-elephant conflicts?

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17. In North America, which large mammal often ventures into towns and poses a threat to residents and their properties, particularly in search of food?

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18. The U.S. state of Florida faces an issue with an invasive species of large snake. Which snake poses threats to local wildlife and occasionally to residents?

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19. Compensation schemes for losses caused by wildlife help in:

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20. Which animal is responsible for causing the most human deaths in India annually?

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21. Which of the following activities in the Western Ghats of Kerala poses a threat to wildlife habitats and increases man-animal conflicts?

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22. The state of Odisha is known for occasional incidents of which reptile preying on humans?

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23. In which country has the conflict between humans and elephants resulted in both human and elephant deaths, primarily due to habitat fragmentation?

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24. Which Indian state is most affected by elephant-human conflict?

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25. In Kerala, which animal is often found straying into the human settlements, leading to conflicts, especially in the areas of Idukki and Wayanad?

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26. Which traditional method is used in many parts of India to scare away elephants from villages?

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27. Which of the following tools is NOT generally recommended for immediate human-animal conflict mitigation?

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28. Which of the following is an effective measure to reduce roadkills in areas with high wildlife movement?

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29. In which region is the human-elephant conflict most pronounced due to crop raiding?

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30. Which district in Kerala is often in the news due to elephant-human conflict?

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31. In parts of South America, which big cat species occasionally preys on livestock, leading to conflict with farmers?

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32. In Australia, which animal has become a problem in urban areas, causing traffic issues and damaging gardens?

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33. Which forest region in Kerala, known for its rich biodiversity, has seen increasing human encroachment leading to habitat fragmentation?

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34. In which state did incidents of humans being preyed upon by Gharials (a type of crocodile) make headlines, even though Gharials are primarily fish-eaters?

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35. Which African country faces significant challenges with lion-human conflict as a result of both parties competing for space and resources?

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36. In Southeast Asia, deforestation has led to increased encounters between humans and which critically endangered ape species?

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37. In which region of India have humans historically had conflicts with the Indian Wolf, which occasionally resorts to preying on children?

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38. Which national park in India has faced severe tiger-human conflict due to villagers living in close proximity?

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39. In parts of Eastern Europe, which canid is known to venture into urban areas, often leading to conflicts and concerns about disease transmission?

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40. Which of the following is a common method used to deter elephants from entering agricultural fields?

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Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has emerged as one of the most pressing conservation and human livelihood challenges in contemporary times. With the rapid expansion of human habitats, our worlds often collide with that of wild animals, leading to direct and indirect negative interactions. Such conflicts, while not new, have escalated in recent decades due to a variety of socio-economic and environmental reasons. This article delves deep into understanding HWC with a particular focus on India, juxtaposed against a broader global backdrop.

1. Understanding the Magnitude

  • India: The country, with its rich biodiversity, has borne witness to a variety of human-wildlife conflicts. States like Assam experience severe elephant-human conflict, while states such as Karnataka report the highest number of such incidents annually. On the other hand, snakes cause the highest number of animal-induced human deaths annually.
  • Globally: Beyond India, countries like Kenya face significant lion-human conflicts, while places like Florida in the U.S. are grappling with invasive species like the Burmese Python.

2. Reasons Behind the Escalation

  • Shrinking Habitats: One of the primary reasons for HWC is the shrinking and fragmentation of wild habitats. Activities like deforestation in Southeast Asia have led to increased encounters between humans and species like the Orangutan.
  • Resource Competition: As with the lion-human conflict in Africa, competition for space and resources can spark confrontation.
  • Urban Expansion: Rapid urbanization, road expansions, and agriculture push into traditional animal territories, leading to increased conflicts.

3. Conflict Hotspots

  • Ranthambore National Park, India: This national park witnesses severe tiger-human conflicts due to its proximity to local villages.
  • Sundarbans, India: The region is notorious for conflicts with the Bengal Tiger, which occasionally preys on humans.
  • Florida, U.S.: The invasion of the Burmese Python has posed threats not just to local wildlife but also occasionally to residents.
  • Australia: Urban areas are now seeing a rising number of kangaroos, causing traffic disruptions and garden damages.

4. Innovative Mitigation Measures

  • India: From using ‘kumki’ elephants in driving wild elephants away to lighting fireworks to deter them, India has tried varied techniques. Solar-powered fences have been popular in regions with a high incidence of elephant-human conflicts.
  • Global Measures: Building wildlife corridors or underpasses, as seen in North America and parts of Europe, can prevent roadkills and direct conflicts. In Africa, community-based conservation efforts revolve around involving local communities in wildlife protection initiatives.
  • Agricultural Practices: A shift towards planting crops not favored by wild animals is being seen as a solution in many conflict-prone regions.

5. Educative and Preventive Steps

Community education programs are essential. By teaching communities about wildlife behavior and conflict prevention techniques, many confrontations can be preemptively mitigated. Compensation schemes, popular in many African and Asian countries, help in offsetting the financial impact on affected individuals, thus reducing resentment towards wildlife.

6. Future Directions

It’s crucial to understand that HWC is as much a social issue as it is an ecological one. Resolving conflicts necessitates a multi-pronged approach – one that involves local communities, employs both traditional and modern mitigation methods, and focuses on a shared vision of coexistence. This is especially important in a world where conservation spaces are shrinking, and the pressures on both humans and wildlife are intensifying.